什么样区分考研韩语的定语从句与同位语从句,2016考研土耳其共和国(The Republic of Turkey)语寒假积累之固定搭配

  许多正在准备2016博士考生的考生都明白都教师,考研[微博]俄语在寒假中应当怎么备考呢,都教师认为,匈牙利(Hungary)语在寒假阶段主要基础积累,除了词汇的记得外,固定搭配也是一大主要,可以帮忙考生更好的理解段落作品宗旨。下边都教师就采纳真题带各位考生来探望应该重点回忆何种搭配的词汇。

什么样区分考研韩语的定语从句与同位语从句,2016考研土耳其共和国(The Republic of Turkey)语寒假积累之固定搭配。Section I Use of English

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This is a tuberculosis ward, and at the time this picture was taken in
the late 1800s, one in seven of all people died from tuberculosis. We
had no idea what was causing this disease. The hypothesis was actually
it was your constitution that made you susceptible. And it was a highly
romanticized disease. It was also called consumption, and it was the
disorder of poets and artists and intellectuals. And some people
actually thought it gave you heightened sensitivity and conferred
creative genius.

  真题段落一:

Directions:

  • 二零一五年考研国家线已表露
  • 34校2015考研复试线已发表
  • 2015全国各州大学调剂音信平台
  • 2015高等校园考研调剂信息发布办法
  • 二〇一五年考研考生公布调剂意向区

By the 1950s, we instead knew that tuberculosis was caused by a highly
contagious bacterial infection, which is slightly less romantic, but
that had the upside of us being able to maybe develop drugs to treat it.
So doctors had discovered a new drug, iproniazid, that they were
optimistic might cure tuberculosis, and they gave it to patients, and
patients were elated. They were more social, more energetic. One medical
report actually says they were “dancing in the halls.” And
unfortunately, this was not necessarily because they were getting
better. A lot of them were still dying. Another medical report describes
them as being “inappropriately happy.” And that is how the first
antidepressant was discovered.

  The idea that some groups of people may be more intelligent than
others is one of those hypotheses that dare not speak its name. But
Gregory Cochran is prepared to say it anyway. He is that rare bird, a
secientist who works independently of any institution. He helped
popularize tha idea that some diseases not previously thought to have a
bacterail cause were actually infections ,which aroused much controversy
when it was first suggested.

Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank
and mark A, B, C or D onANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

  同学们在考研[微博]语经济学习中不时简单混淆同位语从句和定语从句,对二种从句的模糊有时会直接影响到作品的高精度领悟及翻译句子正确翻译格局的利用,以下对三种从句的界别方法开展专项统计,以便同学们轻松领悟。二种从句的不同紧要在偏下三上面:

So accidental discovery is not uncommon in science, but it requires more
than just a happy accident. You have to be able to recognize it for
discovery to occur.

  Even he, however,might tremble at the thought of what he is about to
do.

The idea that some groups of people may be more intelligent than others
is one of those hypotheses that dare not speak its name. But Gregory
Cochran is to say it anyway. He is that bird, a scientist who works
independently any institution. He helped popularize the idea that some
diseases not thought to have a bacterial cause were actually infections,
which aroused much controversy when it was first suggested。

什么样区分考研韩语的定语从句与同位语从句,2016考研土耳其共和国(The Republic of Turkey)语寒假积累之固定搭配。  1. 从词类上分别

As a neuroscientist, I’m going to talk to you a little bit about my
firsthand experience with whatever you want to call the opposite of dumb
luck — let’s call it smart luck. But first, a bit more background.

  ●高频搭配

he, however, might tremble at the of what he is about to do. Together
with another two scientists, he is publishing a paper which not only
that one group of humanity is more intelligent than the others, but
explains the process that has brought this about. The group in are a
particular people originated from central Europe. The process is natural
selection。

  同位语从句前边的名词只可以是idea, fact, news, hope, belief,
suggestion, proposal, word, thought, doubt, truth, possibility, promise,
order等有一定内涵的名词,而定语从句的先行词可以是名词、代词,主句的一部分或者整个主句,如:

Thankfully, since the 1950s, we’ve developed some other drugs and we can
actually now cure tuberculosis. And at least in the United States,
though not necessarily in other countries, we have closed our
sanitoriums and probably most of you are not too worried about TB. But a
lot of what was true in the early 1900s about infectious disease, we can
say now about psychiatric disorders.

  不敢公开:Dare not speak its name

This group generally do well in IQ test, 12-15 points above the value of
100, and have contributed to the intellectual and cultural life of the
West, as the of their elites, including several world-renowned
scientists, . They also suffer more often than most people from a number
of nasty genetic diseases, such as breast cancer. These facts, , have
previously been thought unrelated. The former has been to social
effects, such as a strong tradition of education. The latter was seen as
a (an) of genetic isolation. Dr. Cochran suggests that the intelligence
and diseases are intimately . His argument is that the unusual history
of these people has them to unique evolutionary pressures that have
resulted in this state of affairs。

  The possibility that the majority of the labor force will work at
home is often
discussed。人们时时谈论一大半壮劳力将会在家里做事的可能性。(同位语从句)

We are in the middle of an epidemic of mood disorders like depression
and post-traumatic stress disorder, or PTSD. One in four of all adults
in the United States suffers from mental illness, which means that if
you haven’t experienced it personally or someone in your family hasn’t,
it’s still very likely that someone you know has, though they may not
talk about it. Depression has actually now surpassed HIV/AIDS, malaria,
diabetes and war as the leading cause of disability worldwide. And also,
like tuberculosis in the 1950s, we don’t know what causes it. Once it’s
developed, it’s chronic, lasts a lifetime, and there are no known cures.

  不依附于任何机构:Work indipendently of any institution

1.[A] selected[B] prepared[C] obliged[D] pleased

  Our team has won the game, which made us very happy.
大家的队赢了,那让大家很欣喜。(定语从句)

The second antidepressant we discovered, also by accident, in the 1950s,
from an antihistamine that was making people manic, imipramine. And in
both the case of the tuberculosis ward and the antihistamine, someone
had to be able to recognize that a drug that was designed to do one
thing — treat tuberculosis or suppress allergies — could be used to do
something very different — treat depression. And this sort of
repurposing is actually quite challenging. When doctors first saw this
mood-enhancing effect of iproniazid, they didn’t really recognize what
they saw. They were so used to thinking about it from the framework of
being a tuberculosis drug that they actually just listed it as a side
effect, an adverse side effect.

  辅助普及该意见:Help popularize the idea

2.[A] unique[B] particular[C] special[D] rare

  2. 从质量上区分

As you can see here, a lot of these patients in 1954 are experiencing
severe euphoria. And they were worried that this might somehow interfere
with their recovering from tuberculosis. So they recommended that
iproniazid only be used in cases of extreme TB and in patients that were
highly emotionally stable, which is of course the exact opposite of how
we use it as an antidepressant. They were so used to looking at it from
the perspective of this one disease, they could not see the larger
implications for another disease.

  引起了很大的抵触:Arouse much controversy

3.[A] of[B] with[C] in[D] against

  定语从句是从句对其先行词的修饰或限制,属于形容词性从句的范围;而同位语从句是从句对前方抽象名词的一发的辨证和分解,属于名词性从句的规模,如:

And to be fair, it’s not entirely their fault. Functional fixedness is a
bias that affects all of us. It’s a tendency to only be able to think of
an object in terms of its traditional use or function. And mental set is
another thing. Right? That’s sort of this preconceived framework with
which we approach problems. And that actually makes repurposing pretty
hard for all of us, which is, I guess, why they gave a TV show to the
guy who was, like, really great at repurposing.

  一想到……就不寒而栗的肉身颤抖:Tremble at the thought of

4.[A] subsequently[B] presently[C] previously[D] lately

  The news that our team has won the game was true.
大家队赢了本场竞技的新闻是真的。(同位语从句,补充表达news到底是一个什么样新闻。)

(Laughter)

  与众不相同,出人头地的人:Rare bird

5.[A] Only[B] So[C] Even[D] Hence

  The news that he told me yesterday was true.
后天他告诉自己的可怜音讯是真的。(定语从句,news在从句中作told的宾语。)

So the effects in both the case of iproniazid and imipramine, they were
so strong — there was mania, or people dancing in the halls. It’s
actually not that surprising they were caught. But it does make you
wonder what else we’ve missed. So iproniazid and imipramine, they’re
more than just a case study in repurposing. They have two other things
in common that are really important. One, they have terrible side
effects. That includes liver toxicity, weight gain of over 50 pounds,
suicidality. And two, they both increase levels of serotonin, which is a
chemical signal in the brain, or a neurotransmitter. And those two
things together, right, one or the two, may not have been that
important, but the two together meant that we had to develop safer
drugs, and that serotonin seemed like a pretty good place to start.

  由细菌滋生的:Have a bacterial cause

6.[A] thought[B] sight[C] cost[D] risk

  3. 从率领词及其在句子中的成分上分别

So we developed drugs to more specifically focus on serotonin, the
selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, so the SSRIs, the most famous
of which is Prozac. And that was 30 years ago, and since then we have
mostly just worked on optimizing those drugs. And the SSRIs, they are
better than the drugs that came before them, but they still have a lot
of side effects, including weight gain, insomnia, suicidality — and
they take a really long time to work, something like four to six weeks
in a lot of patients. And that’s in the patients where they do work.
There are a lot of patients where these drugs don’t work.

  ●巩固习题

7.[A] advises[B] suggests[C] protests[D] objects

  有些率领词如how, whether,
what可以指点同位语从句,但无法引导定语从句,如:

And that means now, in 2016, we still have no cures for any mood
disorders, just drugs that suppress symptoms, which is kind of the
difference between taking a painkiller for an infection versus an
antibiotic. A painkiller will make you feel better, but is not going to
do anything to treat that underlying disease. And it was this
flexibility in our thinking that let us recognize that iproniazid and
imipramine could be repurposed in this way, which led us to the
serotonin hypothesis, which we then, ironically, fixated on. This is
brain signaling, serotonin, from an SSRI commercial. In case you’re not
clear, this is a dramatization. And in science, we try and remove our
bias, right, by running double-blinded experiments or being
statistically agnostic as to what our results will be. But bias creeps
in more insidiously in what we choose to study and how we choose to
study it.

  He helped popularize the idea that some diseases not previously
thought to have a bacterial cause were actually infections , which
aroused much controversy when it was first suggested.

8.[A] progress[B] fact[C] need[D] question

  That question whether we need it has not been considered.
大家是否需求它那些标题还从未考虑。(同位语从句)

So we’ve focused on serotonin now for the past 30 years, often to the
exclusion of other things. We still have no cures, and what if serotonin
isn’t all there is to depression? What if it’s not even the key part of
it? That means no matter how much time or money or effort we put into
it, it will never lead to a cure.

  结构提示:that some diseases 是前方 the idea 的同位语从句,not
previously thought to have a bacterial
cause做前置定语修饰前面的diseases,主干是some diseases were actually
infections.

9.[A] attaining[B] scoring[C] reaching[D] calculating

  指引词that指点定语从句时,在从句中一般做主语或宾语(指物时仍可以用which代替),并且作宾语时平常省略,that在同位语从句中仅起延续功效,不担任任何成分,并且不可能大约,也无法用which来代替,如:

In the past few years, doctors have discovered probably what is the
first truly new antidepressant since the SSRIs, Calypsol, and this drug
works very quickly, within a few hours or a day, and it doesn’t work on
serotonin. It works on glutamate, which is another neurotransmitter. And
it’s also repurposed. It was traditionally used as anesthesia in
surgery. But unlike those other drugs, which were recognized pretty
quickly, it took us 20 years to realize that Calypsol was an
antidepressant, despite the fact that it’s actually a better
antidepressant, probably, than those other drugs. It’s actually probably
because of the fact that it’s a better antidepressant that it was harder
for us to recognize. There was no mania to signal its effects.

  参考译文:他协助普及那样一个视角,即此前觉得不是由细菌滋生的少数疾病实际就是传染病,该意见第四次提议来的时候,引起了很大的冲突。

10.[A] normal[B] common[C] mean[D] total

  The order that we should send a few people to help the other groups
was received yesterday.
大家应派多少人去帮其余几个小组的一声令下明日收受了。(同位语从句,是对order的求实解释,that虽不作成分,但无法大致。)

So in 2013, up at Columbia University, I was working with my colleague,
Dr. Christine Ann Denny, and we were studying Calypsol as an
antidepressant in mice. And Calypsol has, like, a really short
half-life, which means it’s out of your body within a few hours. And we
were just piloting. So we would give an injection to mice, and then we’d
wait a week, and then we’d run another experiment to save money.

  真题段落二:

11.[A] unconsciously[B] disproportionately

  The order that we received yesterday was that we should send a few
people to help the other groups.
咱们前几日收取的下令是我们理应派几人去救助其余多少个小组。(定语从句,是名词order的修饰语,that在从句中作received的宾语,可以简单。)

And one of the experiments I was running, we would stress the mice, and
we used that as a model of depression. And at first it kind of just
looked like it didn’t really work at all. So we could have stopped
there. But I have run this model of depression for years, and the data
just looked kind of weird. It didn’t really look right to me. So I went
back, and we reanalyzed it based on whether or not they had gotten that
one injection of Calypsol a week beforehand. And it looked kind of like
this. So if you look at the far left, if you put a mouse in a new space,
this is the box, it’s very exciting, a mouse will walk around and
explore, and you can see that pink line is actually the measure of them
walking. And we also give it another mouse in a pencil cup that it can
decide to interact with. This is also a dramatization, in case that’s
not clear. And a normal mouse will explore. It will be social. Check out
what’s going on. If you stress a mouse in this depression model, which
is the middle box, they aren’t social, they don’t explore. They mostly
just kind of hide in that back corner, behind a cup. Yet the mice that
had gotten that one injection of Calypsol, here on your right, they were
exploring, they were social. They looked like they had never been
stressed at all, which is impossible.

  They also suffer more often than most people from a number of nasty
genetic diseases, such as breast cancer. These facts , however, social
effects, such as a strong tradition of valuing education. The latterwas
seen as a consequence of genetic isolation .Dr.Cochran suggests that the
inteligence and diseases are intimately linked. His argument is that the
unusual history of these people has subjected them to unique
evolutionary pressures that have reasulted in this paradoxical state of
affairs.

[C] indefinitely[D] unaccountably

  【真题例句】

So we could have just stopped there, but Christine had also used
Calypsol before as anesthesia, and a few years ago she had seen that it
seemed to have some weird effects on cells and some other behavior that
also seemed to last long after the drug, maybe a few weeks. So we were
like, OK, maybe this is not completely impossible, but we were really
skeptical.

  ●高频搭配

12.[A] missions[B] fortunes[C] interests[D] careers

  The issue of whether life ever existed on the planet, and whether it
persists to this day, has been highlighted by mounting evidence that the
Red Planet once had abundant stable, liquid water and by the continuing
controversy over suggestions that bacterial fossils rode to Earth on a
meteorite from Mars。

So we did what you do in science when you’re not sure, and we ran it
again. And I remember being in the animal room, moving mice from box to
box to test them, and Christine was actually sitting on the floor with
the computer in her lap so the mice couldn’t see her, and she was
analyzing the data in real time. And I remember us yelling, which you’re
not supposed to do in an animal room where you’re testing, because it
had worked. It seemed like these mice were protected against stress, or
they were inappropriately happy, however you want to call it. And we
were really excited.

  境遇局部令人不适的遗传性疾病

13.[A] affirm[B] witness[C] observe[D] approve

  【解析】

And then we were really skeptical, because it was too good to be true.
So we ran it again. And then we ran it again in a PTSD model, and we ran
it again in a physiological model, where all we did was give stress
hormones. And we had our undergrads run it. And then we had our
collaborators halfway across the world in France run it. And every time
someone ran it, they confirmed the same thing. It seemed like this one
injection of Calypsol was somehow protecting against stress for weeks.

  在此以前被认为是不相干的have previously been thought unrelated

14.[A] moreover[B] therefore[C] however[D] meanwhile

  句子可拆分为:The issue of //whether life ever existed on the
planet, and whether it persists to this day, //has been highlighted //by
mounting evidence //that the Red Planet once had abundant stable, liquid
water and //by the continuing controversy over suggestions //that
bacterial fossils rode to Earth on a meteorite from 马尔斯。

And we only published this a year ago, but since then other labs have
independently confirmed this effect. So we don’t know what causes
depression, but we do know that stress is the initial trigger in 80
percent of cases, and depression and PTSD are different diseases, but
this is something they share in common. Right? It is traumatic stress
like active combat or natural disasters or community violence or sexual
assault that causes post-traumatic stress disorder, and not everyone
that is exposed to stress develops a mood disorder. And this ability to
experience stress and be resilient and bounce back and not develop
depression or PTSD is known as stress resilience, and it varies between
people. And we have always thought of it as just sort of this passive
property. It’s the absence of susceptibility factors and risk factors
for these disorders. But what if it were active? Maybe we could enhance
it, sort of akin to putting on armor.

  归因于社会影响 have been put down to social effects

15.[A] given up[B] got over[C] carried on[D] put down

  主句为:The issue of whether life ever existed on the planet, and
whether it persists to this day, has been highlighted by… and
by…。主句主语的布局为: The issue of whether…and whether…。of
短语修饰the issue, of 短语较长一般译在后头;that the Red
Planet…是evidence的同位语从句,(即是evidence的具体内容)。that bacterial
fossils…是suggestions的同位语从句,说明suggestions的具体内容。)第二个同位语从句可以一向翻译在所修饰词后边。首个同位语可以置身所修饰的名词后面,充当定语。

We had accidentally discovered the first resilience-enhancing drug. And
like I said, we only gave a tiny amount of the drug, and it lasted for
weeks, and that’s not like anything you see with antidepressants.

  低度重视教育的思想意识a strong tradition of valuing education

16.[A] assessing[B] supervising[C] administering[D] valuing

  【参考译文】

But it is actually kind of similar to what you see in immune vaccines.
So in immune vaccines, you’ll get your shots, and then weeks, months,
years later, when you’re actually exposed to bacteria, it’s not the
vaccine in your body that protects you. It’s your own immune system
that’s developed resistance and resilience to this bacteria that fights
it off, and you actually never get the infection, which is very
different from, say, our treatments. Right? In that case, you get the
infection, you’re exposed to the bacteria, you’re sick, and then you
take, say, an antibiotic which cures it, and those drugs are actually
working to kill the bacteria. Or similar to as I said before, with this
palliative, you’ll take something that will suppress the symptoms, but
it won’t treat the underlying infection, and you’ll only feel better
during the time in which you’re taking it, which is why you have to keep
taking it. And in depression and PTSD — here we have your stress
exposure — we only have palliative care. Antidepressants only suppress
symptoms, and that is why you basically have to keep taking them for the
life of the disease, which is often the length of your own life.

  被看作基因隔离的结果 be seen as a consequence of genetic isolation

17.[A] development[B] origin[C] consequence[D] instrument

  更多的凭证评释,那个革命行星上已经有稳定而加上的液态水,而且人们对从火星落到地球上的细菌化石陨石的布道间接有争辩,使罗睺上是还是不是留存过生命和是不是至今仍有生命的题材变成了引人注目的最主要。

So we’re calling our resilience-enhancing drugs “paravaccines,” which
means vaccine-like, because it seems like they might have the potential
to protect against stress and prevent mice from developing depression
and post-traumatic stress disorder. Also, not all antidepressants are
also paravaccines. We tried Prozac as well, and that had no effect.

  密切相关 be intimately linked

18.[A] linked[B] integrated[C] woven[D] combined

  小说来源:万海学文

So if this were to translate into humans, we might be able to protect
people who are predictably at risk against stress-induced disorders like
depression and PTSD. So that’s first responders and firefighters,
refugees, prisoners and prison guards, soldiers, you name it.

  使她们接受独特的升高力量have subjected them to unique evolutionary
pressures

19.[A] limited[B] subjected[C] converted[D] directed

And to give you a sense of the scale of these diseases, in 2010, the
global burden of disease was estimated at 2.5 trillion dollars, and
since they are chronic, that cost is compounding and is therefore
expected to rise up to six trillion dollars in just the next 15 years.

  争执的情景 paradoxical state of affairs

20.[A] paradoxical[B] incompatible[C] inevitable[D] continuous

As I mentioned before, repurposing can be challenging because of our
prior biases. Calypsol has another name, ketamine, which also goes by
another name, Special K, which is a club drug and drug of abuse. It’s
still used across the world as an anesthetic. It’s used in children. We
use it on the battlefield. It’s actually the drug of choice in a lot of
developing nations, because it doesn’t affect breathing. It is on the
World Health Organization list of most essential medicines.

  ●巩固习题

Section Ⅱ Reading comprehension (50 points)

If we had discovered ketamine as a paravaccine first, it’d be pretty
easy for us to develop it, but as is, we have to compete with our
functional fixedness and mental set that kind of interfere. Fortunately,
it’s not the only compound we have discovered that has these
prophylactic, paravaccine qualities, but all of the other drugs we’ve
discovered, or compounds if you will, they’re totally new, they have to
go through the entire FDA approval process — if they make it before
they can ever be used in humans. And that will be years. So if we wanted
something sooner, ketamine is already FDA-approved. It’s generic, it’s
available. We could develop it for a fraction of the price and a
fraction of the time.

  Dr.Cochran suggests that the intelligence and diseases are
intimately linked.

Part A

But actually, beyond functional fixedness and mental set, there’s a real
other challenge to repurposing drugs, which is policy. There are no
incentives in place once a drug is generic and off patent and no longer
exclusive to encourage pharma companies to develop them, because they
don’t make money. And that’s not true for just ketamine. That is true
for all drugs. Regardless, the idea itself is completely novel in
psychiatry, to use drugs to prevent mental illness as opposed to just
treat it.

  参考译文:Cochran大学生认为,高智商与病魔密切相关。

Directions:

It is possible that 20, 50, 100 years from now, we will look back now at
depression and PTSD the way we look back at tuberculosis sanitoriums as
a thing of the past. This could be the beginning of the end of the
mental health epidemic.

  希望通过那两段真题中的段落,能让考生认识到应有积攒何种固定搭配,寒假是打牢根基的好时节,希望各位考生可以踏实备考。预祝大家备考顺遂,取得卓越佳绩!

Read the following four passages. Answer the questions below each
passage by choosing A, B, C and D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1.
(40 points)

But as a great scientist once said, “Only a fool is sure of anything. A
wise man keeps on guessing.”

  小说来源:文都教育

Text1

Thank you, guys.

The majority of successful senior managers do not closely follow the
classical rational model of first clarifying goals, assessing the
problem, formulating options, estimating likelihoods of success, making
a decision, and only then taking action to implement the decision.
Rather, in their day-by-day tactical maneuvers, these senior executives
rely on what is vaguely termed intuition to manage a network of
interrelated problems that require them to deal with ambiguity,
inconsistency, novelty, and surprise; and to integrate action into the
process of thinking。

Generations of writers on management have recognized that some
practicing managers rely heavily on intuition. In general, however, such
writers display a poor grasp of what intuition is. Some see it as the
opposite of rationality; others view it as an excuse for
capriciousness。

Isenberg’s recent research on the cognitive processes of senior managers
reveals that managers’ intuition is neither of these. Rather, senior
managers use intuition in at least five distinct ways. First, they
intuitively sense when a problem exists. Second, managers rely on
intuition to perform well-learned behavior patterns rapidly. This
intuition is not arbitrary or irrational, but is based on years of
painstaking practice and hands-on experience that build skills. A third
function of intuition is to synthesize isolated bits of data and
practice into an integrated picture, often in an Aha! experience.
Fourth, some managers use intuition as a check on the results of more
rational analysis. Most senior executives are familiar with the formal
decision analysis models and tools, and those who use such systematic
methods for reaching decisions are occasionally leery of solutions
suggested by these methods which run counter to their sense of the
correct course of action. Finally, managers can use intuition to bypass
in-depth analysis and move rapidly to engender a plausible solution.
Used in this way, intuition is an almost instantaneous cognitive process
in which a manager recognizes familiar patterns。

One of the implications of the intuitive style of executive management
is that thinking is inseparable from acting. Since managers often know
what is right before they can analyze and explain it, they frequently
act first and explain later. Analysis is inextricably tied to action in
thinking/acting cycles, in which managers develop thoughts about their
companies and organizations not by analyzing a problematic situation and
then acting, but by acting and analyzing in close concert。

Given the great uncertainty of many of the management issues that they
face, senior managers often instigate a course of action simply to learn
more about an issue. They then use the results of the action to develop
a more complete understanding of the issue. One implication of
thinking/acting cycles is that action is often part of defining the
problem, not just of implementing the solution。

  1. According to the text, senior managers use intuition in all of the
    following ways EXCEPT to

[A] speed up of the creation of a solution to a problem。

[B] identify a problem。

[C] bring together disparate facts。

[D] stipulate clear goals。

  1. The text suggests which of the following about the writers on
    management mentioned in line 1, paragraph 2?

[A] They have criticized managers for not following the classical
rational model of decision analysis。

[B] They have not based their analyses on a sufficiently large sample
of actual managers。

[C] They have relied in drawing their conclusions on what managers say
rather than on what managers do。

[D] They have misunderstood how managers use intuition in making
business decisions。

  1. It can be inferred from the text that which of the following would
    most probably be one major difference in behavior between Manager X, who
    uses intuition to reach decisions, and Manager Y, who uses only formal
    decision analysis?

[A] Manager X analyzes first and then acts; Manager Y does not。

[B] Manager X checks possible solutions to a problem by systematic
analysis; Manager Y does not。

[C] Manager X takes action in order to arrive at the solution to a
problem; Manager Y does not。

[D] Manager Y draws on years of hands-on experience in creating a
solution to a problem; Manager X does not。

  1. The text provides support for which of the following statements?

[A] Managers who rely on intuition are more successful than those who
rely on formal decision analysis。

[B] Managers cannot justify their intuitive decisions。

[C] Managers” intuition works contrary to their rational and
analytical skills。

[D] Intuition enables managers to employ their practical experience
more efficiently。

  1. Which of the following best describes the organization of the first
    paragraph of the text?

[A] An assertion is made and a specific supporting example is given。

[B] A conventional model is dismissed and an alternative introduced。

[C] The results of recent research are introduced and summarized。

[D] Two opposing points of view are presented and evaluated。

Text2

Bernard Bailyn has recently reinterpreted the early history of the
United States by applying new social research findings on the
experiences of European migrants. In his reinterpretation, migration
becomes the organizing principle for rewriting the history of
pre-industrial North America. His approach rests on four separate
propositions。

The first of these asserts that residents of early modern England moved
regularly about their countryside; migrating to the New World was simply
a natural spillover. Although at first the colonies held little positive
attraction for the English — they would rather have stayed home — by the
eighteenth century people increasingly migrated to America because they
regarded it as the land of opportunity. Secondly, Bailyn holds that,
contrary to the notion that used to flourish in America history
textbooks, there was never a typical New World community. For example,
the economic and demographic character of early New England towns varied
considerably。

Bailyn’s third proposition suggest two general patterns prevailing among
the many thousands of migrants: one group came as indentured servants,
another came to acquire land. Surprisingly, Bailyn suggests that those
who recruited indentured servants were the driving forces of
transatlantic migration. These colonial entrepreneurs helped determine
the social character of people who came to pre-industrial North America.
At first, thousands of unskilled laborers were recruited; by the 1730’s,
however, American employers demanded skilled artisans。

Finally, Bailyn argues that the colonies were a half-civilized
hinterland of the European culture system. He is undoubtedly correct to
insist that the colonies were part of an Anglo-American empire. But to
divide the empire into English core and colonial periphery, as Bailyn
does, devalues the achievements of colonial culture. It is true, as
Bailyn claims, that high culture in the colonies never matched that in
England. But what of seventeenth-century New England, where the settlers
created effective laws, built a distinguished university, and published
books? Bailyn might respond that New England was exceptional. However,
the ideas and institutions developed by New England Puritans had
powerful effects on North American culture。

Although Bailyn goes on to apply his approach to some thousands of
indentured servants who migrated just prior to the revolution, he fails
to link their experience with the political development of the United
States. Evidence presented in his work suggests how we might make such a
connection. These indentured servants were treated as slaves for the
period during which they had sold their time to American employers. It
is not surprising that as soon as they served their time they passed up
good wages in the cities and headed west to ensure their personal
independence by acquiring land. Thus, it is in the west that a
peculiarly American political culture began, among colonists who were
suspicious of authority and intensely anti-aristocratic。

  1. Which of the following statements about migrants to colonial North
    America is supported by information in the text?

[A] A larger percentage of migrants to colonial North America came as
indentured servants than as free agents interested in acquiring land。

[B] Migrants who came to the colonies as indentured servants were more
successful at making a livelihood than were farmers and artisans。

[C] Migrants to colonial North America were more successful at
acquiring their own land during the eighteenth century than during the
seventeenth century。

[必发88,D] By the 1730’s,migrants already skilled in a trade were in more
demand by American employers than were unskilled laborers。

  1. The author of the text states that Bailyn failed to

[A] give sufficient emphasis to the cultural and political
interdependence of the colonies and England。

[B] describe carefully how migrants of different ethnic backgrounds
preserved their culture in the United States。

[C] take advantage of social research on the experiences of colonists
who migrated to colonial North America specifically to acquire land。

[D] relate the experience of the migrants to the political values that
eventually shaped the character of the United States。

  1. Which of the following best summarizes the author’s evaluation of
    Bailyn’s fourth proposition?

[A] It is totally implausible。

[B] It is partially acceptable。

[C] It is highly admirable。

[D] It is controversial though persuasive。

  1. According to the text,Bailyn and the author agree on which of the
    following statements about the culture of colonial New England?

[A] High culture in New England never equaled the high culture of
England。

[B] The cultural achievements of colonial New England have generally
been unrecognized by historians。

[C] The colonists imitated the high culture of England, and did not
develop a culture that was uniquely their own。

[D] The southern colonies were greatly influenced by the high culture
of New England。

  1. The author of the text would be most likely to agree with which of
    the following statements about Bailyn’s work?

[A] Bailyn underestimates the effects of Puritan thought on North
American culture。

[B] Bailyn overemphasizes the economic dependence of the colonies on
Great Britain。

[C] Bailyn’s description of the colonies as part of an Anglo-American
empire is misleading and incorrect。

[D] Bailyn failed to test his propositions on a specific group of
migrants to colonial North America。

Text3

Proponents of different jazz styles have always argued that their
predecessor’s musical style did not include essential characteristics
that define jazz as jazz. Thus, 1940’s swing was belittled by beboppers
of the 1950’s who were themselves attacked by free jazzes of the 1960’s.
The neoboppers of the 1980’s and 1990’s attacked almost everybody else.
The titanic figure of Black saxophonist John Coltrane has complicated
the arguments made by proponents of styles from bebop through neobop
because in his own musical journey he drew from all those styles. His
influence on all types of jazz was immeasurable. At the height of his
popularity, Coltrane largely abandoned playing bebop, the style that had
brought him fame, to explore the outer reaches of jazz。

Coltrane himself probably believed that the only essential
characteristic of jazz was improvisation, the one constant in his
journey from bebop to open-ended improvisations on modal, Indian, and
African melodies. On the other hand, this dogged student and prodigious
technician — who insisted on spending hours each day practicing scales
from theory books — was never able to jettison completely the influence
of bebop, with its fast and elaborate chains of notes and ornaments on
melody。

Two stylistic characteristics shaped the way Coltrane played the tenor
saxophone: he favored playing fast runs of notes built on a melody and
depended on heavy, regularly accented beats. The first led Coltrane to
“sheets of sound” where he raced faster and faster, pile-driving notes
into each other to suggest stacked harmonies. The second meant that his
sense of rhythm was almost as close to rock as to bebop。

Three recordings illustrate Coltrane’s energizing explorations.
Recording Kind of Blue with Miles Davis, Coltrane found himself outside
bop, exploring modal melodies. Here he played surging, lengthy solos
built largely around repeated motifs — an organizing principle unlike
that of free jazz saxophone player Ornette Coleman, who modulated or
altered melodies in his solos. On Giant Steps, Coltrane debuted as
leader, introducing his own compositions. Here the sheets of sound,
downbeat accents, repetitions, and great speed are part of each solo,
and the variety of the shapes of his phrases is unique. Coltrane’s
searching explorations produced solid achievement. My Favorite Things
was another kind of watershed. Here Coltrane played the soprano
saxophone, an instrument seldom used by jazz musicians. Musically, the
results were astounding. With the soprano’s piping sound, ideas that had
sounded dark and brooding acquired a feeling of giddy fantasy。

When Coltrane began recording for the Impulse! Label, he was still
searching. His music became raucous, physical. His influence on rockers
was enormous, including Jimi Hendrix, the rock guitarist, who, following
Coltrane, raised the extended guitar solo using repeated motifs to a
kind of rock art form。

  1. The primary purpose of the text is to [A] discuss the place of
    Coltrane in the world of jazz and describe his musical explorations.
    [B] examine the nature of bebop and contrast it with improvisational
    jazz. [C] analyze the musical sources of Coltrane’s style and their
    influence on his work. [D] acknowledge the influence of Coltrane’s
    music on rock music and rock musicians。

  2. Which of the following best describes the organization of the fourth
    paragraph? [A] A thesis referred to earlier in the text is mentioned
    and illustrated with three specific examples. [B] A thesis is stated
    and three examples are given each suggesting that a correction needs to
    be

made to a thesis referred to earlier in the text.[C] A thesis referred
to earlier in the text is mentioned, and three examples are presented
and

ranked in order of their support of the thesis.[D] A thesis is stated,
three seemingly opposing examples are presented, and their underlying

correspondence is explained。

  1. According to the text, John Coltrane did all of the following during
    his career EXCEPT [A] improvise on melodies from a number of different
    cultures. [B] perform as leader as well as soloist. [C] spend time
    improving his technical skills. [D] eliminate the influence of bebop
    on his own music。

  2. According to the text a major difference between Coltrane and other
    jazz musicians was the

[A] degree to which Coltrane’s music encompassed all of jazz. [B]
repetition of motifs that Coltrane used in his solos. [C] number of
his own compositions that Coltrane recorded. [D] indifference Coltrane
maintained to musical technique。

  1. In terms of its tone and form, the text can best be characterized as
    [A] dogmatic explanation. [B] indignant denial. [C] enthusiastic
    praise. [D] speculative study。

Text4

Flatfish, such as the flounder, are among the few vertebrates that lack
approximate bilateral symmetry (symmetry in which structures to the left
and right of the body’s midline are mirror images). Most striking among
the many asymmetries evident in an adult flatfish is eye placement:
before maturity one eye migrates, so that in an adult flatfish both eyes
are on the same side of the head. While in most species with asymmetries
virtually all adults share the same asymmetry, members of the starry
flounder species can be either left-eyed (both eyes on the left side of
head) or right-eyed. In the waters between the United States and Japan,
the starry flounder populations vary from about 50 percent left-eyed off
the United States West Coast, through about 70 percent left-eyed halfway
between the United States and Japan, to nearly 100 percent left-eyed off
the Japanese coast。

Biologists call this kind of gradual variation over a certain geographic
range a “cline” and interpret clines as strong indications that the
variation is adaptive, a response to environmental differences. For the
starry flounder this interpretation implies that a geometric difference
(between fish that are mirror images of one another) is adaptive, that
left-eyedness in the Japanese starry flounder has been selected for,
which provokes a perplexing question: what is the selective advantage in
having both eyes on one side rather than on the other?

The ease with which a fish can reverse the effect of the sidedness of
its eye asymmetry simply by turning around has caused biologists to
study internal anatomy, especially the optic nerves, for the answer. In
all flatfish the optic nerves cross, so that the right optic nerve is
joined to the brain’s left side and vice versa. This crossing introduces
an asymmetry, as one optic nerve must cross above or below the other. G.
H. Parker reasoned that if, for example, a flatfish’s left eye migrated
when the right optic nerve was on top, there would be a twisting of
nerves, which might be mechanically disadvantageous. For starry
flounders, then, the left-eyed variety would be selected against, since
in a starry flounder the left optic nerve is uppermost。

The problem with the above explanation is that the Japanese starry
flounder population is almost exclusively left-eyed, and natural
selection never promotes a purely less advantageous variation. As other
explanations proved equally untenable, biologists concluded that there
is no important adaptive difference between left-eyedness and
right-eyedness, and that the two characteristics are genetically
associated with some other adaptively significant characteristic. This
situation is one commonly encountered by evolutionary biologists, who
must often decide whether a characteristic is adaptive or selectively
neutral. As for the left-eyed and right-eyed flatfish, their difference,
however striking, appears to be an evolutionary red herring.36.
According to the text, starry flounder differ form most other species of
flatfish in that starry flounder [A] are not basically bilaterally
symmetric. [B] do not become asymmetric until adulthood. [C] do not
all share the same asymmetry. [D] have both eyes on the same side of
the head.37. Which of the following best describes the organization of
the text as a whole? [A] A phenomenon is described and an
interpretation presented and rejected. [B] A generalization is made
and supporting evidence is supplied and weighed. [C] A contradiction
is noted and a resolution is suggested and then modified. [D] A series
of observations is presented and explained in terms of the dominant
theory.38. The text supplies information for answering which of the
following questions? [A] Why are Japanese starry flounder mostly
left-eyed? [B] Why should the eye-sidedness in starry flounder be
considered selectively neutral? [C] Why have biologists recently
become interested in whether a characteristic is adaptive or

selectively neutral? [D] How do the eyes in flatfish migrate?39. Which
of the following is most clearly similar to a cline as it is described
in the second

paragraph of the text?[A] A vegetable market in which the various
items are grouped according to place of origin. [B] A wheat field in
which different varieties of wheat are planted to yield a crop that will
bring

the maximum profit.[C] A flower stall in which the various species of
flowers are arranged according to their price.[D] A housing
development in which the length of the front struts supporting the porch
of each

house increases as houses are built up the hill.40. Which of the
following phrases from the text best expresses the author’s conclusion
about the

meaning of the difference between left-eyed and right-eyed
flatfish?[A] “Most striking” (line 3, paragraph 1)[B] “variation is
adaptive” (line 2, paragraph 2)[C] “mechanically disadvantageous”
(line 7, paragraph 3)[D] “evolutionary red herring” (line 9, paragraph
4)

Part B

Directions:

You are going to read a list of headings and a text about how to select
a fund. Choose the most suitable heading from the list A–F for each
numbered paragraph (41–45). The first and last paragraphs of the text
are not numbered. There is one extra heading which you do not need to
use. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

[A] Watching related expenses and making wise choice

[B] Paying attention to details

[C] Weighing your financial goals and expectations first

[D] Maintaining realistic expectations

[E] Narrowing the search

[F] Not too special

Eating better. Exercising. Investing. There are a lot of things you know
should be doing. The problem is that getting started always seems to be
the hardest part. For many investors, mutual funds are a good way to go,
but trying to sort through the number of available choices – now more
than 10,000 – makes this important task appear overwhelming. Let’s look
at some ways to cut that number down to a reasonable size, as well as
other factors to consider when selecting your first fund。

41.

Before you begin examining potential investments, it’s important to take
some time to assess your own goals and risk tolerance. If you start with
a clear objective in mind, as well as an understanding as to how you
might react if your investment loses money, you’ll be less likely to
purchase a fund that doesn’t fit your needs. And that’s what often leads
to disappointment. It is important to look for funds that are
appropriate for both your goals and your investment temperament。

42.

One way to begin your search for a good fund is to use the Morningstar
star rating. The rating is a useful tool for narrowing the field to
funds that have done a good job of balancing return and risk in the
past. To assign ratings, Morningstar uses a formula that compares a
fund’s risk-adjusted historical performance with that of other funds
within four rating groups – domestic stock funds, international stock
funds, taxable bond funds, and municipal bond funds。

43.

Funds that invest solely in a single market sectors, called specialty
funds, often have impressive returns and may be great additions to a
diversified portfolio. However, the success of such funds depends
largely on the fortunes of a particular market sector. Hence, specialty
funds probably aren’t the best way to start. For your first fund, look
for a diversified stock fund that has exposure to different types of
stocks。

44.

There’s no free lunch in fund investing: in addition to the sales fees
that some fund companies charge, fund investors must also pay management
fees and trading costs. Unfortunately, you don’t necessarily get what
you pay for – no one has ever shown that more expensive funds provide
greater returns. Look for funds with reasonable costs. The expense
ratio, which expresses annual costs as a percentage amount, is probably
the best number to use when comparing mutual fund costs。

45.

Whatever the market does, try to take it in stride. You’re in for the
long haul, so don’t worry about the market’s day-to-day gyrations. Relax
and resist the temptation to monitor your first investment daily. Check
in on your mutual funds once a month, and give your portfolio a thorough
exam every 6 to 12 months. And consider adding to your fund each month.
An automatic investment plan makes it a relatively painless process。

Finally, remember that the ultimate measure of your success as an
investor depends not on your owning the best-performing mutual fund.
Only one fund will be the top performer over the next decade, and
there’s no way to predict which one it will be. Meeting your own
financial goals should ultimately be the yardstick by which you measure
your investment success.

Section Ⅲ Translation

Directions:

In this section there is a paragraph in English .Translate it into
Chinese and write your translation on ANSWER SHEET 2. (15 points)

It is not easy to talk about the role of the mass media in this
overwhelmingly significant phase in European history. History and news
become confused, and one’s impressions tend to be a mixture of
skepticism and optimism. Television is one of the means by which these
feelings are created and conveyed — and perhaps never before has it
served so much to connect different peoples and nations as in the recent
events in Europe. The Europe that is now forming cannot be anything
other than its peoples, their cultures and national identities. With
this in mind we can begin to analyze the European television scene. In
Europe, as elsewhere, multi-media groups have been increasingly
successful: groups which bring together television, radio, newspapers,
magazines and publishing houses that work in relation to one another.
One Italian example would be the Berlusconi group, while abroad Maxwell
and Murdoch come to mind。

Moreover, the integration of the European community will oblige
television companies to cooperate more closely in terms of both
production and distribution。

Section Ⅳ Writing

Part A

Directions:

You and your family are planning for a trip to Hong Kong during the May
holiday. Write a letter to a travel agency to explain your travel plans,
ask for relevant information, and express your gratitude for a reply.
(10 points)

Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter. Use “Li Ming”
instead。

Do not write the address。

Part B

Directions:

In this part, you are asked to write a composition according to the
information below. You should write more than 150 words neatly on ANSWER
SHEET 2. (15 points)

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