【必发888官网进入】女人在校学习战表更好,教育展参加展览大学简介

必发888官网进入 1图形来自:BBC

2008年华夏国际教育展将于十月116日在北京市拉开帷幕,随后巡回奥兰多、法国首都、圣胡安和
圣地亚哥四个都市,以下为大不列颠及北爱尔兰联合王国此次参加展览学院和学校International College Sherborne
School简介:

【必发888官网进入】女人在校学习战表更好,教育展参加展览大学简介。Gender, education and work: The weaker sex

Boys are being outclassed by girls at both school and university, and
the gap is widening

在高竹秋大学阶段,男孩正被女孩超过,且距离正渐次拉大。

“IT’S all to do with their brains and bodies and chemicals,” says Sir
Anthony Seldon, the master of Wellington College,
a**posh**English**boarding school**. “There’s
a**mentality**that it’s not cool for them to perform, that it’s not
cool to be smart,” suggests Ivan Yip, principal of the Bronx Leadership
Academy in New York. One school charges £25,000 ($38,000) a year and has
a**scuba-diving**club; the other serves subsidised lunches to most
of its pupils, a quarter of whom have**special needs**. Yet
both**are grappling with**the same problem: teenage boys are being
left behind by girls.

一所高等英语寄宿学校的校长AnthonySeldon称“那全然在于他们的大脑、身体和激素”。纽约Bronx Leadership
Academy厅长IvanYip称“他们普遍认为努力是不酷的,聪明是不酷的”。前者收费3.8万美金一年并设有潜水俱乐部;而另2个为其超过半数学生提供午餐补贴,百分之二十五的学习者有特有教学要求。不过,它们都平等致力于化解相同难点:青少年男孩远远滞后于女孩。

It is a problem that would have been unimaginable a few decades ago.
Until the 1960s boys spent longer and went further in school than girls,
and were more likely to graduate from university. Now, across the rich
world and in a growing number of poor countries, the balance
has**tilted**the other way. Policymakers who once fretted about
girls’ lack of confidence in science now spend their time dangling
copies of “Harry Potter” before surly boys. Sweden has commissioned
research into its “boy crisis”. Australia has devised a reading
programme called “Boys, Blokes, Books & Bytes”. In just a couple of
generations, one gender gap has closed, only for another to open up.

这是三个十几年前无法想像的难点。直到19世纪70时代以前,男孩比女孩费用更长日子并收获更高等教学育,且更有大概从高校结束学业。以往,无论是富裕世界照旧特别多的清贫国家,平衡向另一方倾斜。曾经担忧女孩缺少正确信心的国策制定者们,以往越来越多时间在强行男孩前面晃动《哈利波特》。瑞士联邦政党已委托了一项有关“男孩风险”的商量。澳洲开始展览了一项”男孩,汉子,书和比特”的类别。仅仅几代时间内,前2脾性别差别消失,而后一种性别差别又出现。

The**reversal**is laid out in a report published on March 5th by the
OECD, a Paris-based rich-country think-tank. Boys’ dominance just about
endures in maths: at age 15 they are, on average, the equivalent of
three months’ schooling ahead of girls. In science the results are
fairly even. But in reading, where girls have been ahead for some time,
a gulf has appeared. In all 64 countries and economies in the study,
girls outperform boys. The average gap is equivalent to
an**extra**year of schooling.

以法国首都为集散地的富厚世界智库OECD于十二月5号宣布了一份简报中显得了那种反转。汉子在数学领域的主导地位差不离会频频。在平均年龄16周岁时,男孩超越同年龄女孩八个月。在自然科学领域,男女学生表现11分。可是,在翻阅领域,女孩一向维系超过地位,且距离变得更大。在那项商量所涉及的陆十四个国家和经济体中,女孩比男孩表现杰出。女孩平均比男孩超前多少个学年。

The OECD**deems**literacy**to be the most**important skill that
it assesses, since further learning depends on it. Sure enough, teenage
boys are 50% more likely than girls to fail to achieve basic proficiency
in any of maths, reading and science (see chart 1). Youngsters in this
group, with nothing to**build on**or**shine at**, are prone to
drop out of school altogether.

因进一步读书须要注重读写能力,OECD将它看作评估中最注重的技艺。果真如此,在促成数学、阅读和自然科学的根基能力时,年轻男孩比女孩多出二分之一的败诉恐怕。在那么些部落的青年人,因无所依靠和无所出众,而更有或许从高校辍学。

To see why boys and girls fare so differently in the classroom,
first**look at**what they do outside it. The average 15-year-old
girl devotes five-and-a-half hours a week to homework, an hour more than
the average boy, who spends more time playing video games
and**trawling the internet**. Three-quarters of girls read for
pleasure, compared with little more than half of boys. Reading rates are
falling everywhere as screens draw eyes from pages, but boys are giving
up faster. The OECD found that, among boys who do as much homework as
the average girl, the gender gap in reading fell by nearly a quarter.

要理解为何男子和女孩子在课堂内呈现出这么反差,先从课堂之外活动入手。一般1四岁女孩每一周耗费5.5时辰去做家庭作业,比平均男孩多贰个时辰,他们花费越来越多日子玩电子游戏和上网。3/4的女子将阅读作为消遣,而仅有八分之四多点的男人这么做。随着显示器慢慢把目光从本本挪开,世界上有所地点的阅读率正日趋降低,而男子下落速度更快。OECD发现,在那个和一般女人工作一般的男人中,在读书方面的性别差距减弱了肆分一左右。

Once in the classroom, boys**long to**be out of it. They are twice
as likely as girls to report that school is a “waste of time”, and more
often turn up late. Just as teachers used to struggle to persuade girls
that science is not only for men, the OECD now urges parents and
policymakers to steer boys away from a version of**masculinity**that
ignores academic achievement. “There are different pressures on boys,”
says Mr Yip. “Unfortunately there’s a tendency where they try to**live
up to**certain expectations in terms of [bad] behavior.”

一上书,男子就期盼快点停止。在告知中,多于女人2倍的哥们觉得上课是浪费时间,而且更不时迟到。就如过去教授努力说服女孩子自然科学并不只是男性领域,OECD最近建议老人和策略制定者辅导男子远离将忽视学术成就作为男生气概彰显的这种想法。Yip校长说:“男孩面临着各式各种的下压力。但不幸的是,他们总结在坏行为上不辜负被人希望。

【必发888官网进入】女人在校学习战表更好,教育展参加展览大学简介。Boys’**disdain**for school might have been less irrational when
there were plenty of jobs for uneducated men. But those days**have
long gone**. It may be that a bit of swagger helps in maths, where
confidence plays a part in boys’ lead (though it sometimes extends
to**delusion**: 12% of boys told the OECD that they were familiar
with the mathematical concept of “subjunctive scaling”, a red herring
that fooled only 7% of girls). But their lack of self-discipline drives
teachers crazy.

当已经有过多办事可供未接受教育育男性选用时,男孩鄙视高校还出示没那么非理性。可是那三个生活已经不复存在。也许有的骄傲有助于男士学习数学,自信促使男人当先(但有时候则改为一种幻觉:12%的男孩告诉OECD他们熟识”虚拟缩放“这一概念,而这一假概念则只蒙骗到7%的女孩)。但他俩不够自律让名师很头痛。

Perhaps because they can be so insufferable, teenage boys are often
marked down. The OECD found that boys did much better in its anonymized
tests than in teacher assessments. The gap with girls in reading was a
third smaller, and the gap in maths—where boys were already ahead—opened
up further. In another finding that suggests a lack of even-handedness
among teachers, boys are more likely than girls to be forced to repeat a
year, even when they are of equal ability.

或许因为她俩这么令人难以忍受,青少年男孩日常给予较低分数。OECD发现,男孩在匿名测试中的表现好于先生评估。在读书方面包车型大巴性别差别裁减了三分一;而在数学方面,已当先的男子将反差拉大。另一研讨展现,因老师缺少公平,固然能力相当。男人也比女孩子更有可能被要求复读一年,

What is behind this discrimination? One possibility is that teachers
mark up students who are**polite, eager and stay out of fights**,
all**attributes**that are more common among girls. In some
countries, academic points can even be**dock**ed for bad behaviour.
Another is that women, who make up eight out of ten primary-school
teachers and nearly seven in ten lower-secondary teachers, favour their
own sex, just as male bosses have been shown to favour male underlings.
In a few places sexism is**enshrined**in law: Singapore
still**canes**boys, while**sparing**girls the rod.是什么

致使那种差距对待?一种只怕的表明是教员职员和工人给予那多少个礼貌、热心和远离争斗的学生更高分数,而这几个特色在女孩中特别宽广。在部分国家,甚至会因不良行为而扣掉学业分数。另一种也许是,女性,构成了4/5的小教的和相近七成的初级中学年老年师,更偏爱她们本人的性别,就像是男性上级偏爱男性下属一般。在一部分地点在法规中也有性别主义:新加坡共和国依然允许鞭刑男性,而女性则免于该国际法。

Some countries provide an environment in which boys can do better. In
Latin America the gender gap in reading is relatively small, with boys
in**Chile**,**Colombia**,**Mexico**and**Peru**trailing
girls less than they do elsewhere. Awkwardly, however, this nearly
always**comes with**a wider gender gap in maths,**in favour
of**boys. The reverse is true, too: Iceland, Norway and Sweden, which
have got girls up to parity with boys in maths, struggle with
uncomfortably wide gender gaps in reading. Since 2003, the last occasion
when the OECD did a big study, boys in a few countries have caught up in
reading and girls in several others have significantly narrowed the gap
in maths. No country has managed both.

在有个别国家为男孩表现出色提供了环境。在拉美,阅读方面包车型大巴性别差别相对较小。如智利、哥伦比亚(República de Colombia)、墨西哥和秘鲁(Peru)的匹夫落后于女孩子小于其余地方。可是,令人狐疑的是,那总伴随着男性在数学方面当先于女性的距离加大。反过来也树立。女孩与男孩在数学方面显示卓越的冰岛、挪威和瑞士联邦,挣扎于令人上火的稳步加宽的阅读方面性别差别。自二〇〇〇年OECD最终1回就此举行的广泛调查展现,少数国家男子在读书方面境遇了女子,而在另一些国度女性成功减少了数学方面包车型客车差别。但从未国家成功实现双方。

Girls’ educational dominance**persists**after school. Until a few
decades ago men were in a clear majority at university almost everywhere
(see chart 2), particularly in advanced courses and in science and
engineering. But as higher education has boomed worldwide, women’s
enrolment has increased almost twice as fast as men’s. In the OECD women
now make up 56% of students enrolled, up from 46% in 1985. By 2025 that
may rise to 58%.

中教之后,女性的超过地位继续保证。直至新近数十年,男性大约占据大学的主流人群,特别是不错与工程领域的高阶课程。不过,随着高教在世界范围的蓬勃发展,女性入学增加率差不离两倍于男性。在OECD报告展现,女性注册率由1984年的53%升高至半数,到2025年说不定上升至53%。

Even in the handful of OECD countries where women are in the minority on
campus, their numbers**必发888官网进入,are creeping up**. Meanwhile several,
including America, Britain and parts of Scandinavia, have 50% more women
than men on campus. Numbers in many of America’s elite private colleges
are more evenly balanced. It is widely believed that their opaque
admissions criteria are relaxed for men.

不畏在个别女性是少数人全的OECD国家,女性数量也再逐步攀升。与此同时,一些囊括美利坚合营国、英帝国和亚洲江山,女性比男性人口多于一半。在很多美利坚合众国天才公立大学中,性别比例进一步平衡。许两个人以为那一个大学的不透明招生专业越来越偏爱男性。

The feminisation of higher education was so gradual that for a long time
it passed unremarked. According to Stephan Vincent-Lancrin of the OECD,
when in 2008 it published a report pointing out just how far it had
gone, people “couldn’t believe it”.

高教的女性化进度如此缓慢,以至于在很短日子内未被人发觉。据OECD的Stephan
文斯nt-Lancrin称,当2010年一份有关告知摘立刻,人们“不信任这结果”。

Women who go to university are more likely than their male peers to
graduate, and typically get better grades. But men and women tend to
study different subjects, with many women choosing courses in education,
health, arts and the humanities, whereas men take up computing,
engineering and the**exact sciences**. In mathematics women
are**drawing level**; in the life sciences, social sciences,
business and law they have moved ahead.

进去大学的女性,绝对于他们的男性同僚,更有或然毕业,且赢得更好地培育。可是,男性和女性所选科目标倾向分歧。更加多地女性选用教育、健康、艺术和人法学科,而男性更加多选拔计算机、工程和精细科学等学科。在数学方面,女性正一如既往,而在不利、社科、商业和法规方面,她们处于超越地位。

Social change has done more to encourage women to enter higher education
than any deliberate policy.**The Pill**and a decline in the average
number of children, together with later marriage and childbearing, have
made it easier for married women to join the workforce. As more women
went out to work, discrimination became less**sharp**. Girls saw the
point of study once they were expected to have careers. Rising divorce
rates underlined the importance of being able to provide for yourself.
These days girls nearly everywhere seem more ambitious than boys, both
academically and in their careers. It is hard to believe that in 1900-50
about half of jobs in America were barred to married women.

周旋于别的蓄意的方针,社会变革更有利于鼓励女性进入高教。口服避孕片和平均育儿数量的大跌,以及晚婚和晚育等,为已婚女性寻找工作提供了福利。随着越多女性进入工作环境,歧视变得没那么明显。一旦女性被期望全数职业发展时,女孩就发现到读书的主要性。回涨的离婚率使得女性意识到作者供养的严重性。近期,无论是学业上或然职场上,世界各省的女孩比男孩表现出更东营想。玄而又玄,在19世界上半叶,差不多大半United States工作禁止已婚女性从事。

So are women now on their way to becoming the dominant sex? Hanna
Rosin’s book, “The End of Men and the Rise of Women”, published in 2012,
argues that in America, at least, women are ahead not
only**educationally**but increasingly
also**professionally**and**socially**. Policymakers in many
countries worry about the**prospect**of a
growing**underclass**of**ill-educated men**. That should worry
women, too: in the past they have typically married men in their own
social group or above. If there are too few of those, many women will
have**to marry down**or not at all.

那么,女性是还是不是慢慢成为主导性别?出版于2011年的Ranna Rosin的《The End
of Men and the Rise of
Women》中提出,至少在花旗国,女性不但教育上超越,还在生意上和社会上打头。许多国度的策略制定者担忧数量逐年攀升的下层阶级的启蒙程度较低的男性的前途前景。女性也相应担忧那点。在过去,女性寒凡与同阶层或高于本人阶层的男性结婚。若是那种男性较少,超越一半女性只好寻找下阶层男性或选拔不拜天地。

According to the OECD, the return on investment in a degree is higher
for women than for men in many countries, though not all. In America
PayScale, a company that**crunches**incomes data, found that the
return on investment in a college degree for women was lower than or at
best the same as for men. Although women as a group are now better
qualified, they earn about three-quarters as much as men. A big reason
is the choice of subject: education, the humanities and social work pay
less than engineering or computer science. But academic research shows
that women attach less importance than men to the graduate pay premium,
suggesting that a high financial return is not the main reason for their
further education.

据OECD展现,虽不是整套,然则在多如牛毛国家,高教投入对女性的报恩抢先男性。一家募集收入数据的集团America
PayScale发现,女性对于大学学历的投资回报率相对于男性而言,较低或(在极端处境下)相似。就算女性完全表现越来越,但她们报酬水平仅为男性的百分之七十五。主要缘由在于相对于工程或电脑科学等,女性选拔教育、人文和社科那类薪俸较低科目。不过,学术切磋展现相对于男性,女性更少的酷爱薪金,展现了谋求高回报并非女性追求高教的重点原因。

At the highest levels of business and the professions, women remain
notably scarce. In a reversal of the pattern at school, the anonymous
and therefore gender-blind essays and exams at university protect female
students from bias. But in the workplace, says Elisabeth Kelan of
Britain’s Cranfield School of Management, “traditional patterns assert
themselves in miraculous ways”. Men and women join the medical and legal
professions in roughly equal numbers, but 10-15 years later many women
have chosen unambitious career paths or dropped out to spend time with
their children. Meanwhile men**are rising through the ranks**as
qualifications gained long ago fade in importance and personality,
ambition and experience come to matter more.

在最高层级的买卖和标准领域,女性如故较少。女性在全校所显示优势被转败为胜。在高校,诗歌及考试评价是匿名的,性别因素被制止,而爱惜女性不受性别歧视的影响。可是,来自于英国CraneField教院的埃利sabeth
Kelan称,在工作场所古板格局再度表明本人。同等数量的男性和女性投入文高校和法律高校,但是,10-15年现在,许多女性选用了尤其干燥的饭碗路线或成本越来越多时光陪孩子。与此同时,随着之前习得的经历的根本逐步消亡而个性、雄心和阅历成为更为主要的震慑因素,男性在职业层级上日渐攀升。

For a long time it was said that since women had historically
been**underrepresented**in university and work, it would take time
to fill the pipeline from which senior appointments were made. But after
40 years of making up the majority of graduates in some
countries,**that argument is wearing thin**. According to Claudia
Goldin, an economics professor at Harvard, the “last chapter” in the
story of women’s rise—equal pay and access to the best jobs—will not
come without big structural changes.

不长一段时间以来,流传着一种说法:因历史范围来看,无论是大学或然职场,女性所占比重不足,因而必要时刻去建立通往高层职位的渠道。可是40年来说,一些国度毕业生人数中女性变成主流,那项论证越来越站不住脚。据巴黎高师范大学学军事学教授Claudia戈尔德in称,女性崛起的末梢环节–平等的报酬和极品职业恐怕–若不开始展览大幅度结构调整是不会过来。

In a recent paper in the American Economic Review Ms Goldin found that
the difference between the hourly earnings of highly qualified men and
their female peers grows hugely in the first 10-15 years of working
life, largely because of a big**premium**in some highly paid jobs on
putting in long days and being constantly on call. On the whole men find
it easier than women to work in this way. Where such jobs are common,
for example in business and the law, the gender pay gap remains wide and
even**short spells**out of the workforce are severely penalised,
meaning that**motherhood**can**exact**a heavy price. Where pay
is roughly proportional to hours worked, as in pharmacy, it is low.

在AEQX56的风靡文献中,高尔德in女士发觉高素质劳重力中,在劳作生活的10到15年间,男性小时报酬与女性差距巨大,重要原因在于高收益工作的大幅度奖金取决于长日子工作和随时应对电话为前提。全体而言,男性相对于女性更善于如此行事。在那种工作方法广泛的天地,如商业和法律,性别薪给差别照旧极大。并且,甚至长时间离开工作条件也只怕引致严重惩罚,意味着母亲索要付出较大代价。而当工作薪金首要依靠工作时间长度时,就像配药房,性别薪给差别较小。

There will always be jobs where flexibility is not an option, says Ms
Goldin: those of CEOs, trial lawyers, surgeons, some bankers and senior
politicians come to mind. In many others, pay does not need to depend on
being**available all hours**—and well-educated men who want a life
outside work would benefit from change, too. But the new gender gap is
at the other end of the pay spectrum. And it is not women who are
suffering, but unskilled men.

高尔德in女士称:有个别工作是难以达成灵活性的,就好像那么些主任s、法院开庭审判律师、口腔科医务卫生职员、银行家和有个别名牌政客们。而其余其余干活,薪俸并非在于随时待命。同时,受过特出教育且想要脱离工作的男性也会从中收益。可是,新的性别差距位于薪资范围的另一端。受苦的不要女性,而是无技能的男性。

Some people think that it is better to educate boys and girls in
separate schools. Others, however, believe that boys and girls benefit
more from attending mixed schools. Discuss both these views and give
your own opinion.

  Girls outperform boys in school exams

International College, Sherborne School

Some countries have single-sex education models, while in others both
single sex and mixed schools co-exist and it is up to the parents or the
children to decide which model is preferable.

  Vocabulary: education: 词汇:教育

TheInternational College is the only purpose-built school of its kind
inthe UK; established in 1977, its aim is to give school children
fromnon-British, non-English speaking backgrounds the very best start
totheir education in the UK. It provides:

Some educationalists think that it is more effective to educate boys and
girls in single-sex schools because they believe this environment can
reduce distractions and encourage pupils concentrate on their studies.
This is probably true to some extent. It also allow more equality among
pupils and gives more opportunity to all those at the school to choose
subject more freely without gender prejudice. For example, a much higher
proportion of girls study science to a high level when they attend
girls’ schools than their counterpart in mixed schools do. Similarly,
boys in single-sex schools are more likely to take cookery classes and
to study languages, which are often thought of as traditional subjects
for girls.

  Around the world, girls do better than boys at school。 These are
the findings of a recent study that looked at the test results of 1.5
million 15-year-olds in 74 regions across the globe。

a) Intensive English language training

On the other hand, some experts would argue that mixed schools prepare
their pupils for their future lives. Girls and boys learn to live
together from an early age and are consequently not emotionally
underdeveloped in their relations with the opposite sex. They are also
able to learn each other, and to experience different types of skill and
talent than might be evident in a single gender environment.

  The level of gender equality in those regions made no difference to
the results。 Other factors, such as the income level of the region
also had little impact on the findings。 In only three regions –
Colombia, Costa Rica and the Indian state Himachal Pradesh – was the
trend reversed with boys doing better。

b) Intensive academic development

Personally, I think that there are advantages to both systems. I went to
a mixed school, but feel that myself missed the opportunity to
specialise in cookery because it was seen as the natural domain and
career path for girl. So because of that, I would have preferred to go
to a boys’ school. But hopefully times have changed, and both genders of
student can have equal chances to study what they want to in whichever
type of school they attend.

  So what are the causes of girls’ stronger performance? In the UK,
girls outperform boys in exams that are taken at the age of 15 or 16,
called GCSEs。 According to education expert Ian Toone, this is down to
the way girls and boys are brought up。 “Boys are encouraged to be more
active from an early age, whereas the restless movements of baby girls
are pacified… Hence, girls develop the skill of sitting still for
longer periods of time, which is useful for academic pursuits like
studying for GCSEs。“

c) A careful introduction to the skills essential for study at boarding
schools in England

  He goes on to say that boys often cluster together in larger groups
than girls。 Because of this they are more likely to be influenced by
peer pressure and develop a gang mentality。 He says that GCSEs require
a lot of solo work and are not viewed as ‘cool’ in a laddish culture。

It is a full boarding school, for girls and boys aged between 11 and 17.

  This is backed up by research in the UK that says girls are
out-performing boys at the age of five。 So what is the answer? Should
girls and boys be educated separately? Or do exams and school curricula
need to be changed to better reflect boys’ skills? These are the
questions facing educators in many countries。

Most students study for one year before moving into top traditional
schools。

  Glossary 词汇表

We are non-selective, but achieved 90% higher level passes in
thenational GCSE examinations in 2008. All our teachers are trained,
andmost qualified, in teaching English as a foreign language, as well
asbeing qualified in their own subjects, e.g. Mathematics, Sciences,
etc.Enrolment takes place in September, January and April。

  gender equality男女一样

The College also has an eight week summer course in July and August each
year。

  factor因素

参展城市
北京 (10月17-18日) 武汉 (10月21日) 上海 (10月24-25日) 成都 (10月28日) 广州 (10月30-11月1日)
E401

  income level收入水平

  to reverse a trend转败为胜一种倾向

  to pacify使安静、平定

  academic pursuit学术追求

  to cluster(人)聚集

  to influence影响

  peer pressure同龄人压力

  gang mentality黑社会心态

  solo单独的,独自地

  cool酷

  laddish幼稚的,孩子气的

  school curricula学校课程

  to reflect反映

  文章来源:BBC

实习编辑:王雨欣 责编:赵润琰

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