网络购物(Shopping On-line)

Nowadays, mobile payment is rapidly becoming a new mode of consumption
excepting the traditional cash payment and credit card payment in the
world. And it is no doubt that China has become the country with the
highest rate of mobile payment. But with the development of it, we can
know clearly lots of things about advantages and disadvantages of mobile


Shopping Online

  1. Vocabulary
  • make up/ cosmetics 化妆品
  • commodity 日用商品
  • home appliance 家用电器
  • cashier counter 收银台
  • stand in a long queue
  1. Advantages of off line shopping
  • choose products in real
  • assuring the quality
  • relax yourself since you can get away from your environment. and I
    usually go to the mall with my best friends so it is a good way to
    enhance friendship
  • you can try on the clothes to see if it fits you well.
  1. Disadvantages of off line shopping
  • the mall is a little crowded and you need to stand in a long queue
    at the cashier counter

learning ability is what makes me stand out among others.

  • you need to set aside much time to go to the mall since it is a
    little far from your house. You may need a long commuter time to get
    to the mall
  • goods in the mall is limited and you may wandering the whole day
    ending up with empty hands
  1. advantages of online shopping
  • convenient. since you just need to slip your finger on the
    smartphone screen to choose the suitable goods and pay for it. the
    vendor would deliver the goods to you for free. It rescue you from
    the long line at the mall
  • provide you with more choices. Since the vendors could come across
    the country. You can shop around and choose the cheapest one.
  • transparent. Though you couldn’t see the real products but the
    vendors are required to disclose the information of the products on
    the pages. what is more, you can see the feedback from other
    customers who already bought it. If there is no negative comments on
    it, then you can have a try on it.
  • the platform management. Tmall usually would rate the vendors
    according to the feedback of clients and I only buy things from 5
    vendors with 5 stars.
  • refund. If you find the goods not meet with your demand, you can
    refund it and get your money back. In Tmall, if you submit the
    refund application, the system would promptly ask you if you need
    the delivery service. If yes, they would ask the couriers to fetch
    your goods and send it back to the vendors. And you can get your
    money back. Even though you are not certain about the product
    quality online, but as long as you have the option to refund, then
    you would like to try it.
  1. Disadvantages of online shopping
  • buy things that you don’t need. Since you can see comments from
    other clients, and you may be inspired by their hyperbolic
    statements and buy something that you don’t need. And lots clothes
    vendors often pose pictures of models in their clothes. and you may
    be attracted by the beautiful model and buy the clothes that don’t
    fits you in fact.
  • you may often buy dissatisfied goods and need to refund them. That
    is a waste of time. Because you need to wait to receive, try on and
    then refund.

雅思7分作文: shopping online
Today, shopping, a necessary daily activity, becomes growing epidemic
by transforming itself from conventional manner in stores to online
platforms. In my view, this shift in merchandise, though might have
some negative influence, is still positive.
Compared to shopping in stores physically walking from one place to
another, this change on consuming behaviour offers a great convenience
to most people, especially young working adults by allowing them to
take their time to select everything that they are interested in page
by page and then to simply put goods into the shopping cart waiting
for the payment
. Apparently, it fits young people well in this
frantic pace of living. Quite apart from this, the shift in business
away from traditional model is resource conserving, since the
demands for working staffs and salesmen have kept pace with the number
of customers. Further, products, through internet, can reach more
potential consumers as there is no geographical barriers网络购物。, no
longer restricted to a physical location.
However, it is not all rosy, with the opposition from those who
argue that this change on consuming behaviour and operation of
business may have a negative influence on current brick-and-mortar
business model. Given that online shopping with lower cost permits
comparatively cheaper selling prices, appealing to more consumers, it
can raise a competition as well as an impact on tangible business. But
I contend that in order to attract more potential consumers, both of
them will optimize their resources and upgrade their service, from
which consumers can get more benefits. And this competition will have
a positive effect in long term on the whole business by providing
selection for the most public.
In conclusion, though the change taking place right now has an
adverse effect on actual business, it is still positive as the
competition can promote economic efficiency and development.

  As a result of the increased internet communication, online shopping
has been an indispensable part in the modern life today. However some
people hold disapproval attitudes towards this thing. In my opinion, it
both has positive and negative aspects, just as the proverb goes like
this: every coin has two sides。

First of all, mobile payment has been breaking the limitation of crash
payment and credit card payment, making people’s life is more
convenient. As people increase their dependence on mobile phones, now we
can see that Mobile Payment has become the main consumption way in many
countries especially in biggest cities like Beijing and Shanghai. And it
integrated into all walks of life. Almost all the stores are WeChat and
Alipay to pay support. When we go out for lunch or go shopping, we
needn’t take many cash on hand but just take our phones. It’s convenient
to scan your two-dimensional code for the shop assistant to checkout. At
the same time, it decreases the rate of being robbed by theft in the
street because you didn’t take a lot crash, it’s too conspicuous. Apart
from that, wherever you want to go or whatever you want to do, you can
book tickets, hotels or restaurants in advance online, and you can buy
most of things you want online.

Introduction and History of Pampers in China

  When it comes to positive aspects, it’s very convenient and
time-saving compared with traditional shopping. What you need to do is
just clicking your mouse and waiting instead of going out by foot or
driving. Moreover, more choices than real store are another attraction
to customers. However, in spite of convenience and more choices of
online shopping, we cannot turn a blind eye to its advantages.
Obviously, quality problem is its first advantage. It’s common that
articles aren’t so good just as they are described online that customers
always buy fake commodities. What’s more, it’s troublesome and annoying
for many customers to make a change when they are not satisfied with
what they bought online。

However, there always are some disadvantages with the advantages. What
we are concerning about most is safety. With the development of
intelligent technology, the functions of phones are becoming more and
more powerful. Whenever and whatever we do something by phones, they can
collect data of our information like our names, birthdays, addresses and
our everything. So the meaning of a cell phone to a person is just like
the meaning of a black box to a plane. When you show your
two-dimensional code to the impure people, you will get so many crank
call from insurance company later because you ever buy insurance when
you bought an airplane ticket by your cell phone and they got your
information. The worst is you or your family may be fraudulent. For
example, they will call your family and tell them you owned them much
money because you used to borrow their money to buy some Luxury goods.
And they can provide accurate information about you, then your family
will be deceived for their intention for you.

In 1998, P&G entered the diaper market of China. During that time, most
parents in China were not accustomed to use diaper for their babies.
Instead they tended to use split pants, which is a kind of pants with a
crack at the part of hip. Plastic and paper diaper was rare in that

  To make a better environment for shopping on-line, effective
measures should be taken to make it better. Specifically speaking,
government should work out strict regulations and rules to prevent
unfaithful and unlawful activities of online shopping owners. Only by
this way can online shopping become really safe and attract an
increasing number of customers。(来源:文都教育)

Besides it, it will make you use much money over your arrangement
because you have no burden when you use mobile payment, it’s harmful to
save money and easy to cause something bad like campus loan. Many
students are keen on online shopping, but they don’t have enough money.
Some wicked people take this chance to loan to the students for usury.
It has result many calamities.

In order to develop a disposable diaper market in China, P&G decided to
introduce a kind of diaper which is of cheaper price with an inferior
quality of their origin product. They innocently regarded Chinese
consumers as bargainers with all their purchases. This wrong position of
the diaper made the first step of Pampers in China a really tough step.
To most of the parents in China, the cloth and split pants which has
been used for hundreds of years seems still worked well in 20th century.
It is unnecessary to change it into a diaper. As for the emerging
middle-class parents, they tended to make their purchase decisions based
on what it best for their only child rather than what is cheaper. They
wer premium quality seeker. It was clear Pampers diapers did not
satisfied their needs. Pamper was just some irritating plastic in their
eyes. Although the usage of diaper kept growing slowly, the huge market
is still a sleeping market.

With the continuous progress of technology, the cash – free society is
coming into being. There is no doubt that the development of things is
always accompanied by positive and negative two aspects. But I sure that
things are always developing in good direction and there will be better
solutions to the problem of mobile payment.

In 2006, Pampers product quality was revised and they came up with
softer and more absorbent diapers by developing more efficient
technology platforms and even moved manufacturing operations to China in
order to eliminate shipping costs. At that period the diaper market was
still a little market compared to the huge population of China.

In 2007, Pampers tries again. But this time, they started by following
the basics principles of a marketing strategy: Research and (only then)

They realized that if they wanted to convince the Chinese consumer to
buy Pampers diapers rather than to continue using spilt pants, they had
to find what else Chinese parents needed.

P&G launched an in-depth research on the Chinese consumers, it turned
out that their need was pretty simple: More Sleep. A universal need that
any mother long for during the first years of having a baby, and an even
more interesting fact came out of this in-depth research:  Mothers
concern about the quality of their baby’s sleep and its impact on their
future cognitive development, because of the one-child policy the
parents are concerned with their child academic achievement as the
Chinese society became more and more competitive.

After commissioning the Beijing Children’s Sleep Research Center for a
study on how Pampers helped babies sleep better, they came out with the
results that baby’s wearing Pampers diapers can fall asleep 30 percent
faster, sleep an extra 30 minutes, and have 50 percent less sleep
disruption through the night.

Pampers then rethought its whole communication strategy and launched its
“Golden Sleep” campaign.

The aim of the “Golden Sleep” campaign was to frame Pampers as a product
to improve the quality sleep of babies by communicating the “scientific”
data results from the Sleep Research Center.

The campaign on Pampers Chinese web site focused on encouraging mothers
to see by themselves the positive effect Pampers diapers had on their
babies sleep by launching a Sleep Tracker that allowed parents to
monitor their baby’s’ sleeping patterns and then asked them to post
pictures of their sleeping baby on the website that would be
incorporated later on into the largest photomontage ever-made and the
goal was to make it into the Guinness World Record.

This time, Pampers got a glorious victory. Instead of offering
convenience and affordable product, Pampers successfully met a deeper
need and educated Chinese mothers about the benefits of longer
uninterrupted sleep for their baby’s cognitive development. P&G also
take care and involved babies’ mothers in the product experience. This
helped pampers walk through the barrier of tradition.

Pampers’ sale boomed 50 percent in the first year of the campaign. The
diaper market in China also suffered a boom. Till 2010, P&G took up
42.7% percent of the 3 billion diaper market in China.

However, in 2010, Pampers began to meet the tough challenge from
competitors. This time, the wind comes from the east. In Japan, Kao’s
product Merries holds a reputation as being especially gentle on babies’
skin. This helped it take a large part of Japanese market. This time the
quality conquered the Chinese customers again. From 2010 till now Kao’s
sale go up like a rocket. Its market share triple from 2010 to 2015, and
trend seems will not stop in a while.

Another Japanese Producer Unicharm, which is the leading diaper producer
in Japan also have a steady growth another important fact is that
Unicharm have owned distributors in more than 1500 cities in China the
number was less than 500 in 2010.

Another interesting fact is the loss of sales of Pampers is not only
from the Diaper produced in China. In fact the diaper import from Japan
to China is growing crazily. This even causes a shortage of diaper in
Japan of special brand. In fact, the sale of Merries also improves
greatly in Japan. However most of the sales growth attributed to the
customers in China.

Pampers is suffering a hard time with constant sales loss.  From the
peak(near 45 percent) to now about 36 percent of market share.
Especially in the area of high end-diaper which is taking a bigger and
bigger market share. Pampers has a weak performance with its Japanese

 Marketing Plan

The whole plan is divided into 4 parts and in every part, it will make
an analysis of its point based on the traditional 4P’s theory, and then
transfer it to our recommendation which is based on the new 4C’s theory

Part 1: Product vs Customer

The biggest mistake that P&G made is that it targeted the wrong consumer
group. The old Pampers were made in China, had good but not top quality,
and targeted on moms in general. They thought that all moms would buy
Pampers for their children because it’s a big brand and they made good
products. However, they were stuck in between the middle-class and
lower-class market. The middle-class consumers want to get the best for
their children. They want the top quality product and they deeply aware
that the “made in China” label equals inferior goods. So they turn to
the import diapers like Kao’s from Japan. Old Pampers clearly didn’t
match their needs. Also, the lower-class consumers are mostly
price-sensitive people, price is their first concern. In this market,
there are already many local Chinese Brands there. The diapers they
produce seems no difference to P&G and other big brands’ diapers in the
lower-class’s eyes. So they went for the cheap Chinese diapers, P&G
failed to grab this market as well. It turn out that it got stuck in
between the middle-class and lower-class. So now, our suggestion for the
new premium diaper’s positioning is that it should focus on the new
middle-class ladies, who are willing to pay for their children,to get
the best for them and favor foreign brands. First because of the
popularity of diapers usage differs a lot from middle-class family to
lower-class family. Among middle-class families who live in the big
cities in China, statistics shows that more than 80% of them would buy
diapers for their children. However, as for the lower-class people who
live in rural areas of China, the diaper usage rate is lower than 15%.
Despite as many as 78% of the total population in China are lower-class
while about 20% are middle-class, the diaper market in lower-class is
still really small. Moreover the lower-class consumers are the consumer
group with the least purchase power. With all the cheap local Chinese
brands competing there, that is really a small but fierce market. The
effort of striving into this market far outweigh the output it may get
in the end. So for a international big brand like P&G, with its new
premium diapers, should totally focus on the middle-class market. As for
the lower-class people, a small group of them may turn into middle-class
in the future. Although now they are not so important, for the long term
benefit of the company, we should still advertise on them so that P&G
pampers diaper would become their first choice when they become
middle-class. Here the emphasis should be put on the P&G brand instead
of just the product itself. Because when they start to change the level
of everything they buy, what goes in their mind first would be a big
brand of many products instead of single dispersed products. Brand
strategy is much better than product promotion here in order to get in
their mind.

Part 2: Price vs Cost

Although we used to think that the customers of China more concerned
about price, however as the economic developed and the income grows, we
find that when it comes to children,the parents seems like does not mind
the price, instead what they actually mind is the cost. That’s to say,
they want to the product worth the price.

As you can see from the chart, the sales of diapers grows as the captia
GDP grows and the speed is much faster than the capita gross domestic
production, especially in 2013 and 2014.

Actually,from 2009 to 2014, the sales of diapers in China grew from 10
billion to 30 billion, that’s nearly tripled, while the captia GDP grew
from 30000 yuan to about 40000 yuan, also much more faster than the
income. In this way it shows that the parents is willing  to invest and
pay more on their kids.

Also, we think that the social structure of modern China have influence
on this. Due to the family planning and the fertility desire
decline,there are fewer number of child for per family; thus the average
resource of per kids have increase.That enables them to invest and pay
more on their children. In this way, the parents are more willing to buy
something with higher quality; they not only concentrate on the price
but also the cost.

As all we was concerned above, we suggest that the Pampers may focus on
the the middle-high level market. The middle-high level markets focus on
those customers who want their babies live in high quality, just like
Japanese brand Kao which grew rapidly and become one of the Pampers’
competitors  in recent year. To achieve this, the Pampers may need to
emphasize the new products and its quality such as 100% chemical
additive free and can prevent skin disease like miliaria in the
advertisements. And the price should be higher than the average 1.5 yuan
per piece and be located at around 2 yuan per piece; higher than the
locally produce Kao, but lower than the Japanese Kao which is around 3

Part 3: Promotion vs Communication

Official website’s slogan: Care, Sleep well, Play freely. We care
mothers from pregnant to raising children.

Creativity (some attributes different from other brand)

1, Ultrathin, dry and comfortable.

必发888官网进入 ,2, Cartoon sponsor “little elephant named pamper” which makes the diaper
more cute.

3, Babies can wear the diaper all the night and mothers don’t need to
change another diaper for babies.

4, Create a growth club for new babies’ mother to join in. And to
provide specialist to answer questions about children’s care.

Marketing activities in China

1, In June 10th 2007, the carnival “growth journey of Pampers” was
launched. This activity mainly conveyed the awareness of better infant
care to mothers’ group.

2, In August 2007, Pampers support a disaster area to reconstruct its
living area and devoted 114 thousand dollars to them.

3, In April 2010, Pampers broke a Guinness Record. The officials of
Pampers collected 105196 pieces of baby’s sleeping photos. Then they
combined these photos to create a worlds’ biggest mosaic picture which
was 33 meters long and 20 meters wide.

Pampers use activities to appeal to customers’ eyes to bring the
awareness to customers. So what about other company like KAO.

What’s KAO had done that’s different from Pampers? In other words, in
terms of selling what’s the biggest characteristic of KAO?

Actually, KAO did little in advertisements and promotions. KAO
concentrates in improving the quality of the diaper. In 2014, in terms
of one piece of diaper, the price of KAO is 30% higher than Pampers.

Secondly, there are two kinds of KAO’s diaper in Chinese market. The
first one is the diaper invented in China by Chinese local factory. The
second one is invented by Japanese local factory. However, the quality
of the former one is no worse than the latter one. But the customers did
many to distinguish two products. Because Japanese factory is well-known
for its precision and high quality.

One thing KAO did was to corporate with the biggest Chinese E-commerce
online shop-TMALL. In Oct 13th 2015, KAO signed an agreement with TMALL.
In this agreement, KAO admitted to sell its diapers which were invented
by Japanese local factory. This activity was highly welcomed by many
Chinese mothers’ group. Because they won’t worry about buying the fake

This case indicates the importance of selling channel. The appropriate
selling channel can truly decrease the customers’ cost of buying the
fake products and also increase sales.

What to do to react to market share lost and sales lost in the aspect of
promotion and communication.

As indicated in the former part of this marketing plan, Pampers also
build its own Japanese local factory. After pampers released a new
Japanese brand diaper, Pampers also did some promotion activities to
advertise its new product and new factory.

Pampers’ factory in Japan invited a well-known star who is also a new
baby’s mother to visit its factory. They experienced the quality and
technology of new pampers’ products. After that the star said “I have
never thought that a simple diaper is produced by a so high-precise
machine.” And they also did some experiments to test the quality of the

This case tells us that Pamper wants to communicate with mothers’ group
and want to show that Pampers also has the ability to produce the high
quality product like KAO. The workers, machines and philosophy of high
quality can also be used by Pampers.

Suggestions are as followed:

  1. Improving the policy of returning goods.

Especially in China, P&G hold a narrow and strict policy to customers in
returning goods. Companies like Apple and Samsung, scandals about unfair
policy both broke out in Chinese market. Then the scandals were widely
propagated by official press which hurt the companies greatly. P&G also
hold the same policy to treat Chinese consumers. This is why? Firstly,
the education level of Chinese customers is not so high. That is to say,
if Pampers hold the same policy of returning goods as in America,
Pampers would suffer a lot by vexatious customers. Secondly, the
regulation and law in Chinese market is not so perfect, so some
well-meaning policies has the opposite effects.

So what could Pampers do after improving the policy of returning goods.
As was indicated in the former part of the marketing plan, new Pampers
targets in middle and higher social class population. So if Pampers
targets the right group, there will be less case about abusing the
well-meaning policy. Secondly, Pampers could apply the improved policy
of returning goods in official stores which are built in big cities
where the education level of people is higher. Also this is somewhat
like policy discrimination, but this is more suitable for improved
policy of returning goods.

The improved policy of returning goods could be like…If customers don’t
satisfy with the products after using it. Customers can return the rest
of the products and get the whole money back. Plus customers who do so
should write the complaint in a paper. This can give more ideas to
Pampers to improve.

  1. Giving out free products for customers to try.

Customers can try the products first and then decide whether to buy it.
For example, customers who have bought the products online might have
traces and information on the internet. Pampers can collect the
information and then use expressage to give free diapers for customers
to try. So customers who have tried it will have more chances to buy it
again. Higher consumption means higher sales (Gourville and Soman).

There are many potential customers in China. Most of them even don’t
know the brand Pampers. So if they can get the free high quality
diapers, they will pay more attention to this brand in the stores and
then buy it again.

Especially in big cities, middle class people don’t have time for
searching information about this kind of product. The cost of time is
even more important than money for middle and higher class people. So
Pampers can do the rest of thing. Pamper can let you try and teach you
how to care babies. This can really satisfy this group of people.

Part 4: Place vs Convenience

Now that we have declared our plan about product’s price, target and
promotion, and next, let’s see the channel that P&G should choose for
its new product. How should the new pampers diaper be sold?

For now, P&G in China takes mainly three channels to sell its product.
Firstly there are two traditional channels: distribution/wholesale and
the retailer like Walmart and Carrefour to which P&G provide a direct
supply. These two channels have served P&G for a long time, but we think
they both are not good choice for the new product, and here are our
analysis. Take distributors as an example, when P&G first entered
Chinese market, it was viewed as a high-level brand, because it was an
American brand. So many distributors loved to purchase its product and
in some way, they help P&G to open the Chinese market. Nevertheless,
after all these years, P&G has already lost its freshness, and
distributors concerned more about their profit now. Unfortunately, P&G
is quite strict with its price. For example, the price for one pack of
diaper in the Chinese market usually is no more than 2 dollars, but the
price P&G give to the distributors is 1.9 while other producer offer a
1.5. So it’s obvious that distributors would prefer to selling another
brand’s product, but they have to sell Pampers diapers, because they
have contract with P&G. So these distributors just put Pampers diaper on
the shelf which is in the corner. This behavior caused a certain degree
of decrease in Pampers diaper’s sale, and P&G is very annoyed with that,
so, in the beginning of this year, P&G cut half of its distributors in
China, which was viewed as a reform in its distribution system. And it
would be very unwise to handle the new product to distributors at this
time. As for its retailers like Walmart, unlike distributors, they still
hold a good corporation relationship with P&G’s in China, however,
considering the saturation in retail market these years, it’s hard for
P&G to make any breakthrough. For the retailers it is getting hard to
make money because in China, the amount of supermarket and big retailer
is rising sharply. Just in one cross road there might be 4 to 5 big
supermarkets. So it is also not proper to sell it through retailers.

Until now these two channels mentioned are based on the 4P’s theory how
to transfer the product from producer to customers, but it seems not
really effective now, so why not figure out just making it easier for
customer to buy the product. There comes the third channel of P&G,
e-commerce, through the online store. Now P&G does have its online store
in Tmall, which is the biggest online shopping platform in China, so
it’s not difficult for P&G to sell the new Pampers diapers through
internet. However, after research, in order to make full use of the
advantage of new product, it should only sell it online, which means
customers cannot buy it in Walmart or other physical store. The reason
for this decision is due to the Chinese’s character. In china, people
who go to the supermarket are usually looking for a bargain, so even P&G
also put the new product in traditional supermarket, the customers may
still choose the cheaper type or other brand. And for people who go
through Internet they are seeking for something different, so when
customers find this product is only available online, they would think
it may be really different from Pampers diapers before, let alone there
is label like “made in Japan” in the product. No doubt this would
attract their attention and they are the customer group that P&G should
target now. Another fact that should be mentioned is that there is not
really a huge difference in quality between Pampers and Kao in same
level product, so the key point is to make customers believe that Papers
has its high level diapers now.

Besides, selling through online store has another advantage. It can
reduce the intermediate link, like when P&G negotiate with those
distributors, the price for customers is higher than the price P&G
offer, and for physical stores, usually they have to take expensive
rent, especially in busy street. And they would rise up the price to
balance the rent. But selling through Internet can eliminate these costs
because the product was transferred from P&G factory to customers. This
can give P&G the ability to lower its price for customers. Considering
the similar quality of Pampers and Kao, still customers would prefer the
lower price for their products, so it become P&G’s advantage to compete
with Kao

In total, selling the new Pampers diaper through Internet give P&G the
advantage that other two channels cannot, and it avoid some current
problems P&G has in its traditional channels. So it would be wise to
choose E-commerce for the new product.


Although Pampers diapers  in China still take the most market share
which is more than as twice as Kao does, it should not ignore the
dangerous signal that customers in China has changed. Besides company
like Kao is grabbing the wealthy level customers from Pampers, there are
also so many Chinese local diapers companies are trying to attract
customers in rural area by their low price, thus, Pampers has to make
some changes to earn its customers back. It’s wise to launch this new
product with high quality and attractive label, however, Pampers(P&G)
should also take method to improve its sales system. Firstly, Retarget
its customers from most of them to the part that can bring the most
profit, and at the same time, also not to forget to seize the customers
it already had,like keeping improve the lower level product may enhance
its competitiveness towards Chinese local companies; Secondly, realizing
the customers’ idea is not only for the lower price, some of them just
want to give their children a better diapers even it could be expensive,
thus, combining with the first one, make a proper price is also
important for its selling; Thirdly, Pampers(P&G) should also improve its
promotion way, from the one-sides persuasion to communicating with its
customer,by taking distribution of free sample and looser return system,
the customers would feel more comfortable to buy the new product;
Finally, using a popular online channel rather than traditional
distribution can make customers have a clear perception of its new
product, and then enhance their interests in it.

By taking this plan, we wish to help P&G enhance the competitiveness of
Pampers and gain an increase in its profit, but for most of all, to
restore the confidence of Pampers in Chinese market.



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